Technical Updates
 
 

INLAND FISH CULTURE PRACTICES (Hindi Version)

 

Pond Fish Farming

Integrated Fish Farming

 

Fish Seed Production

Fresh Water Prawn Culture

  Ornamental Fish Breeding  
 

Keeping colourful and fancy fishes known as ornamental fishes, aquarium fishes, or live jewels is one of the oldest and most popular hobbies in the world.  The growing interest in aquarium fishes has resulted in steady increase in aquarium fish trade globally.

Technology At present in India, hundreds of exotic and indigenous ornamental fish varieties are being bred under captive condition. Majority of the production goes to domestic market and to some extent for export. A  generalised production cycle of ornamental fishes is given below. There are quite a large number of tropical aquarium fishes known to the aquarists. While many of the fishes are easy to breed, some of these are rare, difficult to breed and expensive. Most of the exotic species can be bred and reared easily since the technology is simple and well developed. It is advisable to start with common, attractive, easily bred and less expensive species before attempting the more challenging ones.

Haryana Fisheries Department has established an Ornamental Fish Hatchery a Fish Seed Farm Saidpura, Karnal. The deptt. provide technical know for rearing and breeding of the ornamental fishes so that unemployed youths. Fish farmers can adopt the latest technology to enhance fish production and simultaneously raise their income.

Culture/rearing : The culture/rearing of these fishes can be taken up normally in cement tanks. Cement tanks are easy to maintain and durable. One species can be stocked in one tank. However, in case of compatible species two or three species can occupy the same tank. Ground water from dug wells / deep tube wells/ borewells  are the best for rearing fish. The fishes reach  marketable size in around 4 to 6 months. Eight to ten crops can be taken in a year.

Feeding : Young fish are fed mainly with Infusoria, Artemia, Daphnia , Mosquito larvae Tubifex and Blood worms. For rearing, formulated artificial or prepared feed can be used. At present no indigenous prepared feed for aquarium fish is available. The amount and type of food to be given depends on the size of the fry. Feeding is generally done twice in a day or according to the  requirement. For rearing from fry stage dry/ prepared feed can be used.

Breeding : Ninety five per cent of our ornamental fish export is based on wild collection. Such capture based export is not sustainable and it is a matter of concern for the industry. In order to sustain the growth it is absolutely necessary to shift the focus from capture to culture based development. Moreover, most of the fish species grown for their ornamental importance can be bred in India successfully. Organised trade in ornamental fish depends on assured and adequate supply, which is possible only through mass breeding.
The method of breeding is based on the family characteristics of the fish. The success of breeding depend on the compatibility of pairs, the identification of breeders which is a skill gained through experience. Generally the brooders are selected from the standing crop or purchased and reared separately by feeding them with good live food. However, it is always better to buy good brood stock and replace the breeders. Otherwise, the original characteristic of the species keeps on getting diluted because of continuous inbreeding. Brooders especially egg layers should be discarded after few spawnings.

Health care : Water exchange, is a must for maintaining water quality conducive for the fish health. Only healthy fish can withstand the effects of transportation and fetch a good price. Permitted chemicals / antibiotics, vitamins, etc can also be used for preventing / treating diseases.

Market: At present the market is mainly domestic and the demand is increasing steadily. The export market for indigenously bred exotic species is also fast growing and encouraging.

Economics of Ornamental Fish Rearing

Model-I

1 Capital Investment  
  (i)        Excavation of 1000 sqm. Nursery area 30000.00
  (ii)       Shallow Tubewell with 5 H.P. Engine 60000.00
  (iii)     Inverter 1100 KVA  15000.00
  (iv)      Aerator Heavy Duty            7000.00
  (v)       Aeration pipe fitting 5000.00
                                                              Total 117000.00
2 Operational Cost (Single Crop of 3 months)  
  (i)        Cost of 40000 early fry of Ornamental @ Rs. 0.60 per piece 24000.00
  (ii)       Feed for 3 months 2000.00
  (iii)     Electricity and water charges 6000.00
  (iv)      Medicine and probiotic 1000.00
                                                              Total 33000.00
                                                  Total Expenditure 150000.00
B Income  
  (i)        Sale of 20000 Nos. Ornamental Advance fingerlings @ Rs. 4/- per piece in a single crop of 3 months 80000.00
  (ii)       Total sale of 3 crops per year 240000.00
C Net Income(B(-)1+II) 90000.00

Economics of Ornamental Fish Rearing

Model-II

1

Capital Investment

 
 

(i)        Construction of 12 Nos. of RBC Cisterns each of 2x1x1mtr.

60000.00

 

(ii)       Aeration pipe and fittings

10000.00

 

(iii)     Aerator

7000.00

 

(iv)      Invertor

15000.00

 

(v)       1000 liter Over Head Tank

5000.00

 

(vi)      1st bore well with single phase electric motor

20000.00

 

                                                            Total

117000.00

2

Operational Cost (Single Crop of 3 months)

 
 

(i)        Cost of 40000 early fry @ Rs. 0.60 per piece

24000.00

 

(ii)       Fish feed of 3 months

2000.00

 

(iii)     Electricity and water charges

6000.00

 

(iv)      Medicine and probiotic

1000.00

 

                                                            Total

33000.00

 

                                                Total Expenditure

150000.00

B

Income

 
 

(i)        Sale of 20000 Nos. Ornamental Advance fingerlings @ Rs. 4/- per piece in a single crop of 3 months

80000.00

 

(ii)       Total sale of 3 crops per year

240000.00

C

Net Income(B(-)1+II)

90000.00

Integrated Fish Farming

Fisheries Department provides technical and financial assistance from integrated fish farming. The Integrated fish farming practices utilize the waste form different components of the system viz live stock, poultry, duckery, piggery and agriculture byproducts for fish production. 40-50 kg of organic wastes are converted into one kg of fish, while the pond silt is utilized as fertilizers for the fodder corps, which in turn is used to raise livestock. The system of integrated farming is very wide.

The system provides meal, milk, eggs, fruit, vegetables, mushroom, fodder & grains in addition to fish. It utilizes the pond dykes which otherwise remain utilized for the production of additional food and income to the farmer. The possible integrated farming systems are given blow :-

a)         Fish cum Agriculture System

b)        Fish cum Animal System

Fish cum Paddy Culture

Fish cum Diary

Fish cum water chestnut

Fish cum Pig Farming

Fish cum Pappaya

Fish cum Rabbit Farming

Fish cum Mulberry

Fish cum Poultry

Fish cum Mushroom

Fish cum Duck Farming

 

 


 Pond Fish Farming 
 


Fish Farming is an age old activity and in practice from ancient times. The concept of composite fish culture was developed by ICAR in late seventies under a coordinated composite fish culture project. This comprises the culture of 3 indigenous species of fish viz. rohu, catla and mrigal and 3 exotic fish i.e silver carp, grass carp and common carp, keeping in view their different food habit and habitat. This practice has been very well accepted by the farmers of Haryana as its cultural practices are analogous to agriculture. The successful fish culture requires ploughing of pond, addition of manure, stocking of fish seed; eradication of unwanted aquatic plants and animals, watering the pond; harvesting the crop and marketing of the produce. The fish culture technologies and economics are simple and understandable to the fish farmers. To produce one kilogram fish, the requirements are:-

 


- one cubic meter water

- one kilogram manure and 100 gm inorganic fertilizer
- one kilogram supplementary feed
- and one year time

 

Cost of production of fish is Rs. 18/kg and the sale price on an average is Rs.50/- per kg. A net profit of Rs.180000 per hectare per year is obtained, The pond fish culture practice is being adopted by farmers in all the districts of the state. There are 16000 fish culture units having an area of more than 18700 hectares in the state. The ownership of these ponds vested with the panchayats. Panchayat leases out their ponds to the farmer's for fish farming. These village ponds are generally visited by cattle for drinking water. The cattle refuse dung and urine in the pond. The organic waste released by the cattle are recycled into manure and help in the production of plankton which is basic food for fish. Thus all the village fish culture ponds in Haryana are the good example of fish cum cattle farming. With the passage of time, the farmers have modified the technologies as per the need. Generally Rohu,catla, mrigal and common carp are used for culture. The stocking density is kept at 20000 fish seed per hectare. Farmers have adopted the technique of multiple harvesting. which give better returns. Govt. provides 20% subsidy to general category while 25% to scheduled caste fish farmers for excavation of new pond/ renovation of old pond and fisheries inputs.

Economics of Fish Farming
a)
Expenditure
Rs.
  Construction of Pond,Water Supply Channel, Installation of Tubewell/Renovation/Lease Amount
25000
  Electricity & Water charges
17500
  Cost of 250Kg Lime
1000
  20000 Fish Seeds
1500
  Organic Fertilizer
10000
  Inorganic Fertilizer
5000
  Supplimentry feed
30000
  Medicine, Fishing, Watch & Ward
10000
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
100000
     
b)
Income
  Sale of 5600 KG Fish @ 50 KG at pond site
280000
     
c)
Net Income (B-A)
180000
   
Note:- The Income may vary on the productivity and market price of a pond
 

 

 Integrated Fish Farming 
 


Fisheries Department provides technical and financial assistance for integrated fish farming. The Integrated fish farming practices utilize the waste from different components of thc system viz. live stock, poultry, duckery, piggery and agriculture byproducts for fish production. 40-50 kg of organic wastes are converted into one kg of fish, while the pond silt is utilized as fertilizers for the fodder crops, which in turn is used to raise livestock. The system of integrated farming is very wide.
The system provides meal, milk, eggs, fruits, vegetables, mushroom, fodder & grains in addition to fish. It utilizes the pond dykes which otherwise remain unutilized for the production of additional food and income to the farmer. The possible'integrated farming systems are given below:

 a) Fish cum Agriculture System  b) Fish cum Animal System 
 

Fish cum Paddy Culture
Fish cum water chestnut
Fish cum Pappaya
Fish cum Mulberry
Fish cum Mushroom  

 

Fish Cum Dairy
Fish cum Pig Farming
Fish cum Rabbit Farming
Fish cum Poultry
Fish cum Duck Farming

 
     

Fish cum Dairy

Fish-cum-Dairy Farming is considered as an excellent innovation for the use of organic wastes. Use of cow/buffalo manure in fish farming is a commonly prevailing practice. On an average, one cow/buffalo excretes 12000 kg of dung and 8000 litre urine per year. The cattle faeces and urine are beneficial to the filter-feeding and omnivorous fishes. On an average, 3-4 cows/buffaloes can provide sufficient manure to fertilize one hectare pond. In this system, farmer gets milk, fish and calf as well, which increases revenue and reduces input costs. The system gives a net profit of Rs.2,97,000/- per year from one hectare land.

Economics of Fish cum Dairy
a)
Expenditure
Rs.
  Construction of Pond,Water Supply Channel, Installation of Tubewell/Renovation/Lease Amount
25000
  Electricity & Water charges
17500
  2000 Fish Seeds
1500
  Construction of Shed for Animals (Rs. 150000/- for 10 years)
15000
  Purchase of 5 Murrah Buffalo (Rs 40000/- for 5 years)
40000
  13000 Kg Animal Feed
234000
  Medicine for Animals & Fishes
10000
  Labour Charges
40000
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
383000
     
b)
Income
  Sale of 5600 KG Fish
280000
  Sale of 10000 Ltr. Milk
300000
  Sale of 5 Young ones of Buffalo
100000
 
TOTAL INCOME
680000
c)
Net Income (B-A)
297000
 
Note:- The Income may vary on the productivity and market price of a pond and dairy inputs/ bi-products

 

Fish cum Piggery

The pig dung as an organic manure for fish culture has certain advantages over cattle manure. The waste produced by 20-30 pigs is equivalent to one ton of Ammonium Sulphate applied to the soil.The pigs are fed largely on kitchen waste, aquatic plants and crop byproducts. At present, fish-pig integration is practiced in all the developing countries. Several exotic breeds of pigs have been introduced in the country to augment pork production. The popular races are the white Yorkshire,Berkshire and Landrace. The pigsties should provide adequate protection from adverse weather conditions. A run or courtyard adjacent to the pig house is essential. The size of the pig house depends on the number of pigs to be reared. Floor space is provided @3-4 m2 for every pig weighing 70-90 kg.The pigsties are built mostly at the pond sites and even over the ponds. The washings from the pigsties containing dung and urine are either channelised directly into the pond or composed before its application. The boars, sows and finishing stocks are housed separately. Maize, groundnut, wheat- bran, fishmeal, mineral mixture provide base for concentrated feed mixture. In advanced countries,garbage is widely used to economize pork production and provided after pre-cooking when pig dung is applied to a pond. It enhances the biological productivity of the pond. A portion of dung is directly consumed by some fish also. The excreta voided by 35-40 pigs is found adequate to fertilize one hectare of water. Integrated fish-pig farming is a viable and feasible scientific approach to augment fish production at low cost. The net income in this integration from one hectare of pond is Rs.2,60,000/-.

Fish-cum-Poultry

The droppings of birds in this system are utilized to fertilize the pond. Poultry litter recycled into fish pond produces 6000 kg fish per hectare per year. Broiler production provides good and immediate return to the farmers. Success in production depends mainly on the efficiency of the farmer, experience, aptitude and ability, in the management of the flock. This involves procurement of better brood stock, housing, brooding equipment, feeders, water trays and management practices,which also includes prevention and control of diseases. The poultry litter is applied to the pond in daily doses at a rate of 40-50 kg per hectare. The application of litter may be deferred during the days when algal blooms appear in the ponds. One adult chicken produces about 25 kg of compost poultry manure in one year. 500-600 birds would provide sufficient manure for fertilization of one hectare of fish pond. Farmer can get a net income of Rs.3,37,375/- from one hectare of pond in one year. Govt. provides financial assistance to the farmers for promoting this system.

Economics of Fish-cum-Poultry
a)
Expenditure
Rs.
1
Construction of Pond,Water Supply Channel, Installation of Tubewell/Renovation/Lease Amount
25000
2
Electricity & Water charges
60000
3
Construction of Poultry Shed ( Rs.150000/- for 10 years)
15000
4
550 Chiks
8250
5
22500Kg Poultry Feed
230000
6
Medicines for Fish & Poultry
50000
7
Fishing, Sale of Poultry Birds & Labour
40000
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
428250
   
b)
Income
 
  Sale of 6000 KG Fish
300000
 Sale of 118750 Eggs
415625
 Sale of 500 KG Poultry Birds
50000
 Total Income
765625
  
c)
Net Income(B-A)
337375
  
Note:- The Income may vary on the productivity and market price of a pond and poultry inputs/ bi products

 

Fish cum Duck farming

Fish cum Duck Integration is most common in the developing countries. This type of integration is not popular in northern states of India. Ducks are of several types and Khaki Campbell is recommended for fish-cum-duck integration Fishpond being a semi-closed biological system with several aquatic animals and plants provides an excellent disease-free environment for the ducks. In turn, ducks consume juvenile frogs, tadpoles and dragonfly etc. there by making a safe environment for fish. Duck droppings go directly into the pond, which in turn provide essential nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus that stimulate growth of natural food organisms. Ducks also help in aerating the pond water, alongwith bottom racking. About 300 ducks are enough to fertilize a pond of one hectare. The system results in a net income of Rs. 210000/- per year per hectare. However, due to difficulty in marketing of eggs and duck meat, the system is not very common in the state.

Fish cum Horticulture

Integration of fish cum flowers, fruit plants, vegetables and mushroom can be takcn up. The pond humus is used as manure for plantation. Pond water can be used for plants which is rich in nutrients, thereby decrease the cost on inorganic fertilizers. The pond dykes are used for the plantation. The culture practice can be taken up as per suitablity to the location i.e. location specific. The economics also varies and depends on the type of plantation.

 
   

 

 Fish Seed Production 
 


Quality fish seed is the pre-requisite for successful fish farming. Department is using the techniques of hypophysation for the production of fish seed of culturable varieties. The breeding season of common carp fish in Haryana is February-March every year where as the breeding season of other species is monsoon season. Brood stock of required fish are maintained and sex-wise segreggate is made two month before. The pairing is made and injected with calculated dose of pituitary gland or ovaprim, ovatide or ovpal is injected to male and female fish. Within the 6-8 hours of the injection eggs from female and sperm from male are released in the water. The fertilizer is external. Normally one kg fish releases about one lakh eggs. The hatchlings are known as spawn. The spawn is reared in the nursary pond. After 15 days, the spawn attains the size of 25 mm and ready for stocking in the pond. More than 50 lakh fry can be produced per hectare fish seed farm in both the seasons in a year. The income from sale of fish seed is Rs. 3.25 lakh approx. per year @ Rs. 6500 per lakh. Fisheries department provides technical and financial assistance for setting up of ecotype hatchery and fish seed rearing units.

 

Economics of Fish Seed Production
a)
Expenditure
Rs.
 Construction of Eco Hatchery, Ponds, Water Supply Channel, Installation of Tubewell ( Rs/- 8 Lakh for 10 Years)
80000
 Electricity & Water charges
50000
 Cost of 250 Kg Lime
750
 1500 Kg Brood Stock
60000
 100 Quntals Organic Fertilizer
5000
 250 KG Urea
1250
 500 KG Single Super Phosphate
1500
 Supplimentry feed
50000
 Injecting Material, Medicine, Fishing, Watch & Ward
25000
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
273500
   
b)
Income
 Sale of 500 Lac. Fish Spawn
200000
 Sale of 50 Lac. Fish Fry
325000
 Sale of Spent Brood Stock
20000
 
TOTAL
545000
   
c)
Net Income (B-A)
271500
  
Note:- The Income may vary on the productivity and market price of a pond
 
 
Location of Fishery Seed Farms
Government Farms

Sr. No.

Location of the Farm

Total Land Area (in hectares)

Total WaterArea (in hectares)

1

Jansui (Ambala)1.000.94

2

Sidpura (Karnal3.001.98

3

Jyotisar (Kurukshetra)14.606.93

4

Rohat (Sonepat)3.001.42

5

Damadama (Gurgaon)6.611.25
6Badkhal (Faridabad)6.503.50
7Lisana (Rewari)4.811.93
8Sampla (Rohtak)6.443.24
9Kakroi (Sonepat)4.522.31
10Jhajjar4.001.42
11Tohana (Fatehabad)4.201.60
12Hisar21.807.17
13Dadupur (YamunaNagar)0.600.08
14Mundri (Kaithal)2.000.90
15Ottu (Sirsa)2.801.30
Private Farms

Sr. No.

Location of the Farm

Total Land Area
(in hectares)

Total Water Area
(in hectares)

1

Dherdu (Kaithal)2.001.80

2

Bhutana ( Karnal)10.008.00

3

Mandheri (Kurukshetra)10.006.40

4

Laloda (Fatehabad)3.501.80

5

Gochi (Jhajjar)1.000.60
6Dabra (Hisar)4.503.45
7Satrod( Hisar)4.003.25
8Julani-Khera (Kaithal)1.500.80
9Mauli (Panchkula)1.000.60
10Majra (Jhajjar)1.000.60
11Gagan Kheri (Hisar)1.601.20

 

 

 

 Fresh Water Prawn Farming 
 


There are more than 100 species of Freshwater prawn found in the world. There are more than 25 species are found in India. Out of these 10 species are important from commercial point of view. Out of them Macrobrachium rosenbengii is the main species which is used in culture practices. This is also know as giant prawn. This can be cultured in both fresh water as well as brackish water. It is fast growing animal and farmers can culture profitably. It contains 20-22 percent animal protein and has less cholestrol. It has essential amino-acids and mineral which are very important for human beings. In culture practices, the freshwater prawn has two stages i.e Nursery Pond and Growout Pond. Fresh water prawn is stocked in nursery pond for 45-60 days then it is shifted to grow-out ponds. The ponds are prepared by using manure and fertilizers. The stocking density in nursery pond is kept 2.00-2.50 lakh per hectare. Feed is provided 5 times @ 8-10 gm per kg body weight at initial stage. Check trays are used to regulate the feeding. Prawn crop becomes ready for sale with 7-8 months. The expenditure about Rs. 1.50 lakh per hectare and income is Rs. 2.50 lakh. Thus net income is Rs. 1.00 lakh per hectare in 8 months.

 

 
    
Economics of Prawn Culture (Per Hect.)
a)
Capital Investment
Rs.
 Construction of Pond,Water Supply Channel, Installation of Tubewell/Renovation/Lease Amount
200000
   
b)
Recurring Expenditure
Rs.
 Electricity & Diesel
10000
 Cost of 250Kg Lime
750
 20 KG Urea
160
 50 KG Single Super Phosphate
250
 Seed Cost of 50000 Seeds
27500
 Artificial Feeding , Palleted Feed 2000 kg
44000
 Vitamins, minerals & medicines
1000
 Expenditure on marketing, harvesting and watch & wild
10000
EXPENDITURE
93660
   
c)
Economics
 Expenditure on Capital Investment @16%
320000
 Deprecation on Capital Investment @10%
20000
 Recurring Expenditure
93660
 
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
145660
   
d)
Income
 Sale of 1000 kg Prawn @ Rs.250/- per kg
250000
   
e)
Net Income ( Income - Total Expenditure)
104340
  
Note:- Theabpve economics may change as per productivity of pond and market prices of the PRAWN

 

 
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